Basic Constants

Mathematical Constants
3.141592653589793
e 2.718281828459045
Physical Constants
Speed of light (c) 299,792,458 m/s
Constant of gravitation (G) 6.67259×10-11 N-m2/kg2
Universal gas constant (R) 8,314.510 N-m/kmol-K
Stefan-Boltzmann constant (s) 5.6704×10-8 W/m2-K4
Acceleration of gravity (g) 9.80665 m/s2
Standard atmosphere, sea level 101,325 Pa
Astronomical Constants
Astronomical unit (AU) 149,597,870 km
Light year (ly) 9.460530×1012 km
Parsec (pc) 3.261633 ly
Sidereal year 365.256366 days
Mass of Sun 1.9891×1030 kg
Radius of Sun 696,000 km
Mass of Earth 5.9737×1024 kg
Equatorial radius of Earth 6,378.137 km
Earth oblateness 1/298.257  
Obliquity of the ecliptic, epoch 2000   23.4392911 degrees
Mean lunar distance 384,403 km
Radius of Moon 1,738 km
Mass of Moon 7.348×1022 kg
Luminosity of Sun 3.839×1026 W
Solar constant, at 1 AU 1,366 W/m2
Solar maxima 1990 + 11n (date)
Spaceflight Constants
GM (Sun) 1.32712438×1020 m3/s2
GM (Earth) 3.986005×1014 m3/s2
GM (Moon) 4.902794×1012 m3/s2
GM (Mars) 4.282831×1013 m3/s2
J2 (Earth) 0.00108263  
J2 (Moon) 0.0002027  
J2 (Mars) 0.00196045  

 

Planet Data
Name Equatorial Radius
(km)
Mass
(1024 kg)
Surface Gravity
(m/s2)
GM
(1015 m3/s2)
Semimajor Axis
(106 km)
Eccentricity Orbit Inclination
(degrees)
Sidereal Period
(days)
Sidereal Rotation Period (hours)
Mercury 2,439.7 0.3302 3.70 0.02203 57.91 0.2056 7.00 87.960 1,407.6
Venus 6,051.8 4.8685 8.87 0.3249 108.21 0.0067 3.39 224.701 -5,832.5
Earth 6,378.1 5.9742 9.80 0.3986 149.60 0.0167 0.000 365.256 23.9345
Mars 3,397.0 0.64185 3.71 0.04283 227.92 0.0935 1.850 686.980 24.6229
Jupiter 71,492 1,898.6 24.79 126.686 778.57 0.0489 1.304 4,332.59 9.9250
Saturn 60,268 568.46 10.44 37.931 1,433.53 0.0565 2.485 10,759.2 10.656
Uranus 25,559 86.832 8.87 5.794 2,872.46 0.0457 0.772 30,685.4 -17.24
Neptune 24,764 102.43 11.15 6.835 4,495.06 0.0113 1.769 60,189 16.11
Pluto 1,195 0.0125 0.58 0.00083 5,869.66 0.2444 17.16 90,465 -153.29





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